References and Current Studies

All of the evidence on this website has been gathered from information from the following sources:

General Information about Polyhydramnios

March of Dimes, Complications & Loss, Pregnancy Complications: Polyhydramnios.March of Dimes, Complications & Loss, Pregnancy Complications: Polyhydramnios. https://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/polyhydramnios.aspx

Mayo Clinic, Patient Care & Health Information, Diseases & Conditions: Polyhydramnios. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/polyhydramnios/symptoms-causes/syc-20368493

NHS, Health A to Z: Polyhydramnios (too much amniotic fluid). https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/polyhydramnios/

American Pregnancy Association, Pregnancy Complications: Polyhydramnios: High Amniotic Fluid During Pregnancy. https://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/polyhydramnios-high-amniotic-fluid/

Cleveland Clinic, Health Library, Disease & Conditions: Polyhydramnios: Management & Treatment. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17852-polyhydramnios/management-and-treatment

Children’s Minnesota, Care & Services, Specialty Care & Departments, Midwest Fetal Care Center, Conditions & Services, Polyhydramnios: Polyhydramnios Treatment at Midwest Fetal Care Center. https://www.childrensmn.org/services/care-specialties-departments/fetal-medicine/conditions-and-services/polyhydramnios/

ACOG, ACOG Clinical, Clinical Guidance, Committee Opinion, 2019, Number 764: Medically Indicated Late Preterm and Early Term Deliveries. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2019/02/medically-indicated-late-preterm-and-early-term-deliveries

Contemporary OB GYN, Search, Polyhydramnios: Evaluation and Management of Polyhydramnios. https://www.contemporaryobgyn.net/view/evaluation-and-management-polyhydramnios

The Fetal Medicine Foundation, Education, Fetal Abnormalities, Amniotic Fluid: Polyhydramnios. https://fetalmedicine.org/education/fetal-abnormalities/amniotic-fluid/polyhydramnios

Contemporary OB GYN, Search, Polyhydramnios: Amniotic Fluid Volume: When and How to Take Action. https://www.contemporaryobgyn.net/view/amniotic-fluid-volume-when-and-how-take-action

Hamza, A., Herr, D., Solomayer, E. F., & Meyberg-Solomayer, G. (2013). Polyhydramnios: Causes, Diagnosis and Therapy. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, 73(12), 1241-1246. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1360163

Mayo Clinic, Patient Care & Health Information, Diseases & Conditions: Polyhydramnios. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/polyhydramnios/symptoms-causes/syc-20368493

NHS, Health A to Z: Polyhydramnios (too much amniotic fluid). https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/polyhydramnios/

American Pregnancy Association, Pregnancy Complications: Polyhydramnios: High Amniotic Fluid During Pregnancy. https://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/polyhydramnios-high-amniotic-fluid/

Cleveland Clinic, Health Library, Disease & Conditions: Polyhydramnios: Management & Treatment. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17852-polyhydramnios/management-and-treatment

Children’s Minnesota, Care & Services, Specialty Care & Departments, Midwest Fetal Care Center, Conditions & Services, Polyhydramnios: Polyhydramnios Treatment at Midwest Fetal Care Center. https://www.childrensmn.org/services/care-specialties-departments/fetal-medicine/conditions-and-services/polyhydramnios/

ACOG, ACOG Clinical, Clinical Guidance, Committee Opinion, 2019, Number 764: Medically Indicated Late Preterm and Early Term Deliveries. https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2019/02/medically-indicated-late-preterm-and-early-term-deliveries

Contemporary OB GYN, Search, Polyhydramnios: Evaluation and Management of Polyhydramnios. https://www.contemporaryobgyn.net/view/evaluation-and-management-polyhydramnios

The Fetal Medicine Foundation, Education, Fetal Abnormalities, Amniotic Fluid: Polyhydramnios. https://fetalmedicine.org/education/fetal-abnormalities/amniotic-fluid/polyhydramnios

Contemporary OB GYN, Search, Polyhydramnios: Amniotic Fluid Volume: When and How to Take Action. https://www.contemporaryobgyn.net/view/amniotic-fluid-volume-when-and-how-take-action

Hamza, A., Herr, D., Solomayer, E. F., & Meyberg-Solomayer, G. (2013). Polyhydramnios: Causes, Diagnosis and Therapy. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, 73(12), 1241-1246. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1360163

Diseases / Disorders Known to Cause Polyhydramnios

Moore, Lisa E. “Amount of polyhydramnios attributable to diabetes may be less than previously reported.” World journal of diabetes vol. 8,1 (2017): 7-10. doi:10.4239/wjb.v8.i1.7

Children’s Mercy Kansas City, Departments, Fetal Health Center: Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula. https://www.childrensmercy.org/departments-and-clinics/fetal-health-center/understanding-esophageal-atresia-and-tracheoesophageal/

Children’s Memorial Hermann, Services & Departments, The Fetal Center: Esophageal Atresia. http://childrens.memorialhermann.org/services/esophageal-atresia/

Children’s National, Visiting & Staying, Conditions & Treatment, Genetic Disorders & Defects, Tracheoesophageal Fistula & Esophageal Atresia: Pediatric Tracheoesophageal Fistula & Esophageal Atresia. https://childrensnational.org/visit/conditions-and-treatments/genetic-disorders-and-birth-defects/tracheoesophageal-fistula-and-esophageal-atresia

Children’s Minnesota, Care & Services, Specialty Care & Departments, Midwest Fetal Care, Conditions & Services, Duodenal Atresia: What is Duodenal Atresia? https://www.childrensmn.org/services/care-specialties-departments/fetal-medicine/conditions-and-services/duodenal-atresia/

UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital, Medical Services, Conditions & Treatments, Fetal Disorders: Fetal Bowel Obstruction. https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/conditions/fetal_bowel_obstruction/#fragment-1

The Fetal Medicine Foundation, Education, Fetal Abnormalities, Gastrointestinal Tract: Small Bowel Obstruction. https://fetalmedicine.org/education/fetal-abnormalities/gastrointestinal-tract/small-bowel-obstruction

Fetal Health Foundation, Fetal Syndromes: Anencephaly. https://www.fetalhealthfoundation.org/fetal-syndromes/anencephaly/

Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital, Services & Departments, The Fetal Center, Conditions & Services: Pleural Effusion. http://childrens.memorialhermann.org/services/pleural-effusion/#:~:text=Fetal%20pleural%20effusions%20(also%20known,as%20the%20lungs%20and%20heart.

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Health, Conditions & Diseases, Rare Pregnancy Complications: Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia

Cincinnati Children’s, Services & Specialties, Fetal Care Center, Fetal Conditions Treated: Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation. https://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/service/f/fetal-care/conditions/congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation

Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital, The Fetal Center: Fetal Skeletal Dysplasias / Dwarfing Conditions. http://childrens.memorialhermann.org/the-fetal-center/skeletal-dysplasias-dwarfing-conditions/#:~:text=What%20is%20a%20skeletal%20dysplasia,every%204%2C000%20to%205%2C000%20newborns.

Genetics Home Reference, Health Conditions: X-linked Myotubular Myopathy. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/x-linked-myotubular-myopathy#

Myotonic Dystrophy Support Group: Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy. https://www.myotonicdystrophysupportgroup.org/congenital-myotonic-dystrophy/

Mayo Clinic, Patient Care & Health Info, Diseases & Conditions: Congenital Myopathies. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/congenital-myopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20355695

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Healthy Living, Pregnancy, During Pregnancy, Diabetes: Diabetes & Pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/diabetes.html

Healthline, Search, Uremia: Uremia Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment. https://www.healthline.com/health/uremia

Beth Israel Lahey Health Winchester Hospital, Search, Rh Incompatibility: Rh Incompatibility and Isoimmunization. https://www.winchesterhospital.org/health-library/article?id=11595

Boston Children’s Hospital, Conditions & Treatments: TORCH. http://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions/t/torch

UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital, Medical Services, Conditions & Treatments, Fetal Disorders: Sacrococcygeal Teratoma. https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/conditions/sacrococcygeal_teratoma/

The Fetal Institute, Conditions: Chorioangiomas. https://the-fetal-institute.com/chorioangioma/

TTTS Foundation, Medical Professionals: What is Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome? https://www.tttsfoundation.org/medical_professionals/what_are_the_treatments.php

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Conditions, Airway: Laryngomalacia. https://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/laryngomalacia

Healthline, Search, Hypotonia: Hypotonia (Muscle Weakness): Signs, Causes, and Treatments. https://www.healthline.com/health/hypotonia#outlook

Office on Women’s Health, Diseases & Conditions, All A-Z Health Topics: Hashimoto’s Disease. https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/hashimotos-disease

Grow by WebMD, Pregnancy, Pregnancy, News: Thyroid Disease Increases Birth Defects. https://www.webmd.com/baby/news/20020118/thyroid-disease-increases-birth-defects

The Mayo Clinic, Patient Care & Health Info, Diseases & Conditions A-Z: DiGeorge Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome). https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/digeorge-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20353543

The Mayo Clinic, Patient Care & Health Info, Diseases & Conditions A-Z: Noonan Syndrome. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/noonan-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20354422

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Clinicians & Researchers, Rare Disease Information, Rare Disease Database: Bartter Syndrome. https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/bartters-syndrome/

Prader-Willi Syndrome Association USA, What is PWS: What is Prader-Willi Syndrome? https://www.pwsausa.org/what-is-prader-willi-syndrome/

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Patients & Family, Your Child’s Condition & Care, A-Z, V: VATER Syndrome/VACTERL Association. https://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/v/vacterl

Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Conditions, Craniofacial Anomalies & Disorders: Micrognathia. https://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/micrognathia#

Boston Children’s Hospital, Conditions & Treatments: Hydrops Fetalis. http://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions/h/hydrops-fetalis

Bohnenberger, Alexandra, “Dandy-Walker Syndrome”. Embryo Project Encyclopedia (2017-03-02). ISSN: 1940-5030 http://embryo.asu.edu/handle/10776/11434.

Cao, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Fan, Y., Shi H., & Dai, H. (2018). Successful Pregnancy and Delivery in Uremic Patients with Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Case Report. Medicine, 97(50), e13614. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013614

Legrand, A., Treard, C., Roncelin, I., Dreux, S., Bertholet-Thomas, A., Broux, F., Bruno, D., Decramer, S., Deschenes, G., Djeddi, D., Guigonis, V., Jay, N., Khalifeh, T., Llanas, B., Morin, D., Morin, G., Nobili, F., Pietrement, C., Ryckewaert, A., Salomon, R., Vrillon, I., Blanchard, A., Vargas-Poussou, R. (2018). Prevalence of Novel MAGED2 Mutations in Antenatal Bartter Syndrome.  Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 13 (2), 242-250. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.05670517

Beckwith Wiedemann Children’s Foundation International, About BWS: What is Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome? https://www.beckwithwiedemann.org/about-bws

Symptoms, Management, and Risks of Polyhydramnios

Live Well with Unity Point Health, All Categories, Pregnancy & Newborns: Things that Make You Swell when You’re Pregnant. https://www.unitypoint.org/livewell/article.aspx?id=e668bf44-c376-459e-b263-41f48810373a

Healthline Parenthood, Pregnancy, Search, Irritable Uterus: Irritable Uterus: Is This Normal? https://www.healthline.com/health/pregnancy/are-your-contractions-normal

American Pregnancy Association, Search, Constipation: Constipation in Pregnancy. https://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/constipation-during-pregnancy/

Healthline Parenthood, Pregnancy, Search, Heartburn, Heartburn-During-Pregnancy: Heartburn During Pregnancy: Causes, Plus Treatments that Work.
https://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/preterm-labor-and-premature-birth-are-you-at-risk.aspx

 Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Conditions, Pregnancy: Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM)/ Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM). https://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/premature-rupture-membranes-prompreterm-premature-rupture-membranes-pprom#
 
Preeclampsia Foundation, Women & Families: About Preeclampsia. https://www.preeclampsia.org/public/what-is-preeclampsia
 
Pregnancy Birth and Baby, A-Z Topics, M: Malpresentation. https://www.pregnancybirthbaby.org.au/malpresentation
 
 Grow by WebMD, Pregnancy, Reference: Placental Abruption (Abruptio placentae). https://www.webmd.com/baby/what-is-placental-abruption
 
Grow by WebMD, Pregnancy, Reference: Why Would I Need to Have an Emergency C-Section? https://www.webmd.com/baby/emergency-c-section#1

March of Dimes, Health Topics, Loss & Grief: Stillbirth. https://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/stillbirth.aspx
 
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Conditions, Pregnancy: Postpartum Hemorrhage. https://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/postpartum-hemorrhage
 
Mayo Clinic, Patient Care & Health Info, Diseases & Conditions A-Z, F: Fetal Macrosomia. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fetal-macrosomia/symptoms-causes/syc-20372579
 
Weill Cornell Medicine, View All News: What Every Woman Should Know About Pregnancy and Pulmonary Embolisms. https://weillcornell.org/news/what-every-woman-should-know-about-pregnancy-and-pulmonary-embolisms

Amniotic Fluid Embolism Foundation: What is AFE? https://www.afesupport.org/what-is-amniotic-fluid-embolism/

 

Sayed Ahmed, W. A., & Hamdy, M. A. (2018). Optimal Management of Umbilical Cord Prolapse. International Journal of Women’s Health, 10, 459-465. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S130879

Management, Labor, and Delivery with Polyhydramnios

The Fetal Medicine Foundation, Education, Fetal Abnormalities, Amniotic Fluid: Polyhydramnios. https://fetalmedicine.org/education/fetal-abnormalities/amniotic-fluid/polyhydramnios

Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine, Clinical Guidance, Clinical Publications & Guidelines, Keyword, Polyhydramnios: SMFM Consult Series #46, Evaluation and Management of Polyhydramnios. https://www.smfm.org/publications/263-smfm-consult-series-46-evaluation-and-management-of-polyhydramnios

Contemporary OB/GYN, Search, Polyhydramnios: Evaluation and Management of Polyhydramnios. https://www.contemporaryobgyn.net/view/evaluation-and-management-polyhydramnios

ObG Project, Search, Polyhydramnios: Polyhydramnios – Possible Causes & Next Steps. https://www.obgproject.com/2016/08/05/polyhydramnios-what-is-it/

Maine Medical Partners Women’s Health. (2018). Polyhydramnios Guideline [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://mainehealth.org/-/media/mainehealth/pdfs/clinical-guidelines-and-resources/obstetrical-perinatal-guidelines/polyhydramnios-guideline-51818.pdf?la=en

Spectrum Health Maternal Fetal Medicine. Protocol – Polyhydramnios [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.spectrumhealth.org/for-health-professionals/referrals-and-consultations/womens-health/maternal-fetal-medicine

Holmes, R. (2019). Amniotic Fluid Volume Abnormality: Diagnosis & Management Clinical Guideline v2.0 [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://doclibrary-rcht.cornwall.nhs.uk/GET/d10335638

Preboth M. (2000). ACOG Guidelines on Antepartum Fetal Surveillance. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. American Family Physician, 62(5), 1184-1188. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0901/p1184.html

Contemporary OBGYN, Search, Fetal Surveillance: ACOG Guidelines at a Glance: Antepartum Fetal Surveillance. https://www.contemporaryobgyn.net/view/acog-guidelines-glance-antepartum-fetal-surveillance

Dickinson, J., Tjioe, Y., Jude, E., Kirk, D., Franke, M., Nathan E. (2014). Amnioreduction in the Management of Polyhydramnios Complicating Singleton Pregnancies. Meeting Paper SMFM Paper, 211(4), 434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.05.036

Erfani, H., Diaz-Rodriguez, G., Aalipour, S., Nassr, A., Rezaei, A., Gandhi, M., Mendez-Figueroa, H., Aagaard, K., Shamshirsaz, A. (2019). Amnioreduction in Cases of Polyhydramnios: Indications and Outcomes in Singleton Pregnancies without Fetal Interventions. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 241, 126-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.05.019

Healthline Parenthood, Search, Indomethacin: Treatment of Preterm Labor: NSAIDS (Indomethacin). https://www.healthline.com/health/pregnancy/preterm-labor-nsaids-indomethacin#effectiveness

Cuppett, C., Caritis, S. (2013). Uterine Contraction Agents and Tocolytics. Clinical Pharmacology During Pregnancy, 307-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386007-1.00019-2

 

 

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